A vascular surgery involves the treatment of the blood vessels in our body. The main type of problem that is faced, for which vascular surgery is recommended, is the blockage in the arteries that carry blood to the different parts of our body. For example a carotid artery is an artery that is found in the front of the neck. This artery is responsible for carrying the blood to the brain. If there is any blockage in this artery and if the blood supply is not normal to the brain, the patient may experience numbness and sometimes experience mild to severe stroke. Aortic aneurysm is also a condition in which blood is not taken properly to the different parts of the body by the aortic arteries. These blockages in the arteries are treated using vascular surgeries. One way of treating this blockage is by inflating a balloon in the artery to make more space for the blood to flow and the other one is to bypass the part of the artery where blockage is found so that the blood is carried in a different route. Diagnosis is done for a vascular surgery using CT scan, MRI scan, cerebral angiogram, and duplex ultrasound. People who smoke are mostly affected by these problems. The doctor would recommend the patient to stop smoking if they want to recover from these problems quickly. Stopping smoking may also help in speedy recovery after a vascular surgery. DVT, Thrombophlebitis, and Varicose veins are some of the other problems that are vascular in nature. A vascular surgery is performed to treat these problems also.

Gallbladder is an organ that is located below the liver. This organ helps in digestion by storing the bile produced by the liver and using the bile whenever needed. When a chemical imbalance occurs in the gallbladder the bile that is stored in the gall bladder becomes a solid and stones are formed. The stones that are formed in the gall bladder vary in size. These stones that are formed in the gall bladder blocks the bile produced and pain arises. This arises to the removal of the stones or sometime the gall bladder itself. The gall bladder surgery involves the removal of the stones or the gall bladder itself. Gall bladder surgery is one of the most frequently done operations in the USA.Since the gall bladder is not an essential organ in the body the gall bladder surgery is performed widely in the world. If a gall bladder is affected then it is better to remove the gall bladder through gall bladder surgery.You may experience more pain if the infected gall bladder is not removed. In some cases if left unattended it may also become life threatening. The gall bladder can be removed by two methods that are widely used. A conventional gall bladder surgery or a laparoscopic surgery is followed. The type of gall bladder surgery that is performed on a person depends on the person’s condition. The doctor will suggest the type of operation that can be performed on you. The conventional surgery involves an incision on the abdomen and a few days of hospitalization. Since the incision is bigger in the conventional gall bladder surgery many people opt for a laparoscopic surgery. Moreover the pain in the conventional method is higher than the laparoscopic method of gall bladder surgery. Laparoscopic surgery involves many small incisions (four usually) The patient has to be prepared for the surgery. Mostly they will be asked to avoid drinking or having any food on the date before the surgery after midnight. Anesthesia is given to the patient before surgery. For some patients nausea is common if they are given anesthesia before gall bladder surgery, hence some drugs are given to prevent it. The abdomen area is shaved well before surgery. Usually the operation takes about an hour. For some people laparoscopic surgery may not be suitable and they will be recommended the conventional surgery. Antibiotics are administered to the patient to prevent any infections and blood clots. Special diets are prescribed for patients who have undergone gall bladder surgery.

Thoracic surgery is the field of medicine involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax (the chest) excluding the heart. Generally treatment of conditions of the lungs, chest wall, esophagus and diaphragm. Thoracic surgery is often grouped with cardiac surgery and called cardiothoracic surgery.